[I'm putting this here as I'm sure that track and signals are the most relevant aspects of the question, and there doesn't seem to be a forum for general operations topics, most questions falling here or in stations and recruitment.]
How much work is involved, and what sort of topics are covered when training for a new route?
On average, how many times must a drive cover the route (in the cab) before being signed off?
Do drivers carry documentation for the route they are driving so that they can refresh their knowledge about intricacies of certain situations?
Sorry it was 21 years ago I was trained. I can remember watching some moves on an old vhs tape then being tested on it, as for how many times you do a route it used be a minimum of 4 times before signing off. Training time as far as I'm aware is different from line to line. I never had any documents about routes but we had a book for train faults...This may have all changed now
In my years on LT (1970-74) and BR as a driver 1974-88, I signed quite a few routes. There was no set time on LT, but on the district we were allowed about 2 weeks as a guard, but in those days we were trained as emergency motorman too. ISTR the Divisional Inspector would sign the route knowledge card on the district and Met.
On BR, the driver took his time learning the road, it depended on the work at the depot, but the driver had to know the route intimately in all weathers, sun, rain, fog, snow, day and night. In those days there was still a lot of semaphore signalling around and no AWS on some routes. We also had to know all depots, sidings and depots on the line of route in case we ever had to go in or out of them. The same applied on LT.
Some drivers made notes, some didn't. I'm one of those who didn't, I committed it all to memory. These days things are different with all sorts of training aids, videos, phone apps, the lot. On the German railways (DB) drivers had to know the route, but there was a selection of books in the loco with all the route details which the driver would refer to as he was going along. This was a throwback to more hostile times when trains could literally go anywhere and did, often at short notice.
What surprises me on the current British railways are the number of reminder signs, such as countdown markers to stations as well as the more traditional speed restriction signs. This in my view dumbs down the driver's skill and knowledge but hey ho, times change.
So, while LUL might have set times to learn a route, the big railway still seems to have more flexibility, and remember on the big railway some drivers may have to know several hundreds of miles of route, on LUL the most mileages are probably the Met and Northern Line with its branches. As far as I know there's no documents that drivers carry, but on all railways there's what was called a sectional appendix which lists all lines, signals, station, crossings, gradients and the like. Whether a driver chooses to carry it is down to the driver.